Types of Heart Attack - Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)


Overview


When fat builds up in the arteries, this causes a slight injury to the walls of blood vessels. In an attempt to heal the walls of blood vessels, the cells release chemicals that make the walls of blood vessels sticky. Other substances that enter the bloodstream, for example, inflammatory cells, cell debris, proteins and calcium, begin to adhere to vessel walls. Fats and other substances combine to form a material called plaque.




Over time, the interior of the arteries develop plaques of different sizes. Many plaque deposits are soft on the inside, with a hard fibrous "lid" that covers the exterior. When the hard surface is broken or torn, the soft, oily interior is exposed. Platelets (blood clotting particles that support coagulation) enter the area and clots form around the plate.


When a blood clot blocks the blood supply to the heart muscle, called coronary thrombosis or coronary occlusion, the cardiac muscle of oxygen and nutrients (called ischemia) is "hungry" in the region below the blockage. In a short period of time, an acute coronary syndrome may occur.

Acute coronary syndrome is a name for three types of coronary artery disease associated with a sudden break in plaque within the coronary artery: unstable angina, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or myocardial infarction with ST segmental elevation or myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Circumflex Occlusion (Back of heart)
Left Anterior Descending (LAD)
 Occlusion (Front of heart)
Right Coronary Artery
Occlusion (Front of heart)


Occlusion Circumflex (return of the heart)
Previous anterior anterior occlusion (LAD) anterior (front of the heart)
Occlusion of the right coronary artery (front of the heart)
Dark red = artery
Blue = describes the region of the heart affected by blockage
Each coronary artery supplies blood to a region of the heart muscle. If an artery is blocked (blocked), there is no blood supply in this area.
The damage to the heart muscle depends on the size of the area provided by the blocked artery and the time between the lesions and the treatment.

What is coronary spasm?


Spasm

A heart attack can also occur more rarely with a spasm of a coronary artery. During coronary spasm, coronary arteries or spasms contract and contract, resulting in insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle (ischemia). It can occur at rest and may even occur in people without significant coronary heart disease. When coronary artery spasms occur over a long period of time, a heart attack can occur.

What are the different types of heart attack?

The three types of heart attacks are:
• Hepatic myocardial infarction of ST (STEMI)
• ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
• Coronary spasm or unstable angina pectoris.
The "ST segment" refers to the pattern that appears on an electrocardiogram, which is a sample of the heartbeat. A single STEMI shows high segments. STEMI and NSTEMI heart attacks can cause sufficient damage, such as major heart attacks.

STEMI


STEMI: classic or major cardiac attack
When most people think of a heart attack, they often think of a STEMI. STEMI occurs when a coronary artery is completely blocked and a large part of the muscle stops receiving blood. It is a serious heart attack that can cause considerable damage.

Symptoms and signs of STEMI


A STEMI has the classic symptom of pain in the middle of the chest. This breast discomfort can be described as pressure or narrowness instead of acute pain. Some people who experience STEMI also describe the feeling of pain in one or both arms or the back, neck or jaw.
Other symptoms that can accompany chest pain include:
Nausea
breathlessness
The fear
stun
Get out in cold sweat
Call a doctor immediately if you have symptoms of a heart attack. Most people who have a heart attack wait two hours or more to get help. This delay can cause cardiac or fatal damage.

Heart Attack NSTEMI


Unlike an STEMI, the affected coronary artery is partially restricted to NSTEMI. NSTEM did not show any change in the ST segment at the electrocardiogram.
Coronary angiography shows the arterial prevention level. Blood testing shows an increase in troponin protein levels. Even though the heart is less harmful, an NSTEMI is still a serious condition.
SPASM ARTERIE CORONARY
CAS, silence myocardial infarction or preventive myocardial infarction
Coronary arterial cramps are also known as coronary arteries, unstable angina, or silent heart attacks. Symptoms, similar to STEMI heart attacks, may be confused with muscle aches, digestive disorders and more. It occurs when one of the arteries of the heart stops the blood flow or decreases. Images and blood tests can only be told to your doctor if you have a silent heart attack.

There is no permanent damage during the coronary arteries. Although silent heart attacks are not serious, they may increase the risk of another heart attack or become more severe.
Treatment

Treatments for all types of heart attacks

Immediate treatment
If your doctor suspects a heart attack, you can immediately:
• Aspirin to prevent blood clots
• Nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain and improve blood flow
• Oxygen treatment

After your doctor confirms my heart attack, they will prescribe medications. You can recommend surgery if necessary.


Medicines for heart attacks

Less severe heart attacks can be treated with medication. Your doctor prescribes medications for your condition, risk factors and overall health. These medicines may contain:
• coagulants to dissolve clots that block arteries
• Blood pressure medication to reduce the workload of the heart and control the blood pressure
• Anticoagulants to prevent blood clots
• Statins to support LDL cholesterol

Surgical treatment of large heart attacks
Implant: A blocked artery can also be treated with coronary artery bypass surgery, sometimes referred to as surgical bypass. In this method, a blood vessel is taken out of the body and hanged or grafted to the blocked artery. The blood flow around the blockage can be renewed.

Stent: A stent is a small, flexible mesh tube placed at the occlusion site. This opens the blocked artery for normal blood circulation. The plaque is pressed against the wall of the artery and the stent allows blood to pass through it.

RECOVERY

Recovery and perspectives of heart attacks

Your recovery from a heart attack depends on its severity and how it was treated. It can take from one week to several weeks before you can go back to all your regular activities, especially anything related to the lifting.

Treat a heart attack fast and effectively reduce damage. Your chances of getting a better result also improve when you make heart rehabilitation. Heart rehabilitation is a multi-week program of exercise routines, nutritional advice, and heart-drug learning and lifestyle changes.

Follow-up sessions

Appointments with your doctor are usually performed one, three, and six months after the heart attack. Then you will have it annually if you recover well. It is essential to take your medications as prescribed and follow all your doctor's instructions.

Symptoms of anxiety or depression may also increase after a heart attack. Tell your doctor if you feel these emotions or if it interferes with your daily activity. Your doctor may recommend measures to reduce anxiety.
RISK FACTORS
What increases the risk of heart attack?
The risk factors of STEMI and NSTEMI are the same:
• high LDL cholesterol ("bad")
• Hypertension
• Obesity
• Seated Lifestyle
smoke
• advanced age
• diabetes

There are also risks associated with sex. For example, up to the age of 55, men are at increased risk of heart attack. After menopause, however, women tend to have similar risks for men. Even men tend to have problems in the heart of the heart arteries, while women often suffer a blockage in the small arteries of the heart.

Risk Factors Coronary Artery Spasm

The above factors also present the risk of coronary spasms. But other conditions may also increase the risk of coronary artery spasms. These conditions include:
Migraine
• Excess thyroid hormone
• Chronic allergy conditions
smoke
• Excessive consumption of alcohol
• low in magnesium
• Take drugs for chemotherapy

PREVENTION

Tips for preventing a heart attack
You can reduce your risk by following these important lifestyle behaviors.

Prevention tips
• Spend at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) per week of moderate intensity, such as walking or swimming.
• Follow a heart-shaped diet that focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grain products, lean protein (such as fish), beans, lentils, nuts and olive oil.
• Avoid red meat, processed foods and drinks with added sugars.
• Stop smoking.
• Take your medication regularly.
• Get 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night.
• Reduce stress.
• Perform blood tests and regular tests.
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